APA Citation

APA citation style refers to the rules and conventions established by the American Psychological Association for documenting sources used in a research paper. APA style requires both in-text citations and a reference list. For every in-text citation there should be a full citation in the reference list and vice versa. Refer to Publication manual of the American Psychological Association in the library [REF BF76.7 .P83 2001].

The examples of APA styles and formats listed on this page include many of the most common types of sources used in academic research.

Resource Type Example Citation Rules for Citation
Book Xinnong, C. (1999). Chinese acupuncture and moxibustion. Beijing, China: Foreign Language Press.
  • Author(s): Last name followed by a comma, then the first initial(s) of the first name(s)*
  • Publication Date: In (parentheses), followed by a period
  • Book Title: In italics, with only the first word Capitalized, followed by a period
  • Publisher City, Publisher State/Country: City followed by comma, then country, followed by colon
  • Publisher: Capitalize each word, followed by a period
Reference Book - No Author Miller, B. F. (Ed.). (1970). Family Health Guide and Medical Encyclopedia. Pleasantville, NY: Reader’s Digest.
  • Editor: Last name followed by a comma, then the first initial(s) of the first name(s)*
  • Publication Date: In (parentheses), followed by a period
  • Book Title: In italics, with only the first word Capitalized, followed by a period
  • Publisher City, Publisher State/Country: City followed by comma, then country, followed by colon
  • Publisher: Capitalize each word, followed by a period
Book Chapter Moussa, M. (2012). Communication. In L. R. Burns, E. H. Bradley & B. J. Weiner (Eds.), Shortell & Kaluzny’s Health Care Management: Organization Design and Behavior (pp. 163-187). Clifton Park, NY: Delmar, Cengage Learning.
  • Author of Chapter: Last name followed by a comma, then the first initial(s) of the first name(s)*
  • Publication Date: In parenteses, followed by a period
  • Chapter Title: First word capitalized only, followed by a period
  • Author(s) of Book: List first initial(s) followed by last name, multiple authors separated by comma and ‘&’
  • Book Title: In italics, with only the first word Capitalized, followed by a period
  • Page Numbers: In (parentheses), followed by a period
  • Publisher City, Publisher State/Country: City followed by comma, then country, followed by colon
  • Publisher: Capitalize each word, followed by a period
Journal Article Seo, Y., Lee, I., Jung, W., Ryu, H., Lim, J., Ryu, Y., …Chae, Y. (2014). Motion patterns in acupuncture needle manipulation. Acupuncture in Medicine, 32(5). 394-399. doi: 0.1136/acupmed-2014-010585
  • Author(s): Last name followed by a comma, then the first initial(s) of the first name(s)*
  • Publication Date: In (parentheses), followed by a period
  • Article Title: First word capitalized only, followed by a period
  • Journal Title: In italics, followed by a comma
  • Journal Volume and/or Issue Number: Volume # is in italics, issue number is in parentheses, ending with a period
  • Page numbers: Use complete numbers, do not shorten, ends with a period
  • Doi: all lowercase, do NOT end in a period **
Magazine Article Luchau, Til. (2015, July/August). Myofascial techniques: Working with the psoas. Massage & Bodywork, 30(4), 106-109.
  • Author(s): Last name followed by a comma, then the first initial(s) of the first name(s)*
  • Publication Date: In (parentheses), followed by a period
  • Article Title: First word of title and subtitle capitalized only, followed by a period
  • Magazine Title: In italics, followed by a comma
  • Magazine Volume and/or Issue Number: Volume # is in italics, issue number is in parentheses, ending with a period
  • Page numbers: Use complete numbers, do not shorten, ends with a period
Online Magazine Article Bernstein, S. (2014, July/August). Benefits of Massage. Arthritis Today. Retrieved from www.arthritis.org
  • Author(s): Last name followed by a comma, then the first initial(s) of the first name(s)*
  • Publication Date: In (parentheses), followed by a period
  • Article Title: First word of title and subtitle capitalized only, followed by a period
  • Magazine Title: In italics, followed by a comma
  • Website Retreived From: List the url for the source website
Newspaper Article Hudnut, F. (2015, August). The roots of TCM in depression treatment. Acupuncture Today, pp. 12, 36, 39.
  • Author(s): Last name followed by a comma, then the first initial(s) of the first name(s)*
  • Publication Date: In parentheses, followed by a period, include as much of date as available
  • Article Title: First word of title and subtitle capitalized only, followed by a period
  • Newspaper Title: In italics, followed by a comma
  • Page Number(s): List each page and page range the article appears on beginning with p. or pp. and ending with a period
Online Newspaper Article Phillips, J. S. (2015, October). Modernization of Article Chinese Medicine. Acupuncture Today. Retrieved from www.acupuncturetoday.com
  • Author(s): Last name followed by a comma, then the first initial(s) of the first name(s)*
  • Publication Date: In parentheses, followed by a period, include as much of date as available
  • Article Title: First word of title and subtitle capitalized only, followed by a period
  • Newspaper Title: In italics, followed by a comma
  • Website Retreived From: List the url for the source website
Unpublished Dissertation Wang, S., Yang, C., Wang, L., & Yang, Y. (2012). Analysis of pathology and the research of Chinese medicine treatment of gout (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of East-West Medicine, Sunnyvale, California.
  • Author(s): Last name followed by a comma, then the first initial(s) of the first name(s)*
  • Year: In parentheses, followed by a period, include as much of date as available
  • Title of Work: First word capitalized only, in italics, followed by descriptive statement
  • Description: Unpublished master’s thesis or doctoral dissertation, in parentheses, followed by a period
  • Institute and Location: Separated by commas, ending in a period
Government report, accessed online U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2005). Medicaid drug price comparisons: Average manufacturer price to published prices (OIG publication No. OEI-05-05- 00240). Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.oig.hhs.gov/oei/reports/oei-05-05-00240.pdf
  • Author(s): The Government or corporation name
  • Year: In parentheses, followed by a period, include as much of date as available
  • Title of Work: First word capitalized only, in italics, followed by descriptive statement
  • Assigned Number: The issuing organization assigned a number (e.g., report number, contract number, or monograph number) to the report, give that number in parentheses immediately after the title
  • Publication Place
  • URL Retreived From: Enter the entire URL
DVD Hsuan, Y. (Producer). (2005). Acupuncture: An ancient tool for the modern world [DVD].
  • Primary contributor(s) and role(s): Last name first, followed by first initial(s) of first name(s), followed by the role(s) in parentheses, then a period
  • Date of production: In parentheses followed by a period
  • Title: Capitalize first word of title and subtitle only, in italics
  • Description: Indicate form of media in brackets followed by a period
YouTube Video Carter, J. (2013, October 10). How to improve digestion and stamina – acupressure, stomach 36 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=FvDfqh4kiwM&list=PLS9cvP4bw
8LxXv5Ymqy_MERhGpGS2UU6V
  • Contributor: Last name followed by a comma, then the first initial(s) of first name(s)
  • Date of Submission: Enter year, followed by month and date
  • Title: Capitalize first word of title and subtitle only, in italics
  • URL Retrieved From: Enter the entire URL for the video page
Website content and Blogs Blog entry
Arrington, M. (2008, August 5). The viral video guy gets $1 million in funding. Message posted to http://www.techcrunch.com
Professional Web site
National Renewable Energy Laboratory. (2008). Biofuels. Retrieved May 6, 2008, from http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_biofuels.html
Entire Web site
Witchcraft In Europe and America is a site that presents the full text of many essential works in the literature of witchcraft and demonology (http://www.witchcraft.psmedia.com/).
  • For content that does not easily fit into categories such as journal papers, books, and reports, keep in mind the goal of a citation is to give the reader a clear path to the source material. For electronic and online materials, include stable URL or database name. Include the author, title, and date published when available. For undated materials, include the date the resource was accessed.
  • When citing an entire Web site (and not a specific document on that site), no Reference List entry is required if the address for the site is cited in the text of your paper
*For multiple authors: Two authors, separate names with a “&”
Three to six authors, separate names with commas, and the last two with an “&”
  • e.g. Saywitz, K. J., Mannarino, A. P., Berliner, L., & Cohen, J. A.
Seven or more authors, list the first six names separated with commas, add an elipsis (three periods “…”), followed by the final name listed
  • e.g. Rosler, A., Ulrich, C., Billino, J., Sterzer, P., Weidauer, S., Bernhardt, T., ...Kleinschmidt, A.
** If doi is unavailable: retrieve [date], from [database name & website URL] or [website URL if the article is not from a database]

Credits
  1. sample citations and/or information are credited to Cornell University Library
  2. Cornell University Library APA Citation Style is accessible at https://www.library.cornell.edu/research/citation/apa
  3. This APA citation style samples is created by Kimberley Carle, Library Intern in 2015 and modified by Sophia Wang, Librarian in 2015.